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Full text of "1943 East Carolina Teachers College Bulletin Prognostic Value of High School Grades"

VOL. 34 DECEMBER, 1943 NO. 4 

EAST CAROLINA TEACHERS COLLEGE 
BULLETIN 



PROGNOSTIC VALUE 

OF 

HIGH SCHOOL GRADES 



GREENVILLE, NORTH CAROLINA 



Published four times a year— March. May. August, and December. Bmtered 
as second-class matter March if.. L936 at the Posl Offlce at Greenville, N C 

under Act ..i I ! 1. 1912. 



FOREWORD 

This study, "Prognostic Value of High School Grades," is a 
discussion of a matter of first rate importance to high schools and 
colleges. School administrators are interested in the achieve- 
ments of students in high school and also in college. High school 
principals are interested in the progress of students after they 
leave high school and enter college. This study shows that high 
school grades or judgments of principals and teachers are quite 
reliable and are indicative of what may be expected in college. 

High school grades or marks are not scientifically arrived at in 
many instances and yet the data in this study indicate high 
reliability of teacher judgment with reference to the abilities of 
high school students. It seems to me, however, that adminis- 
trators and high school teachers should use standardized tests to 
a greater extent in assigning grades and in making recommen- 
dations of or statements about pupils who enter college. Each 
student should be given at least the following tests : 

1. A standardized achievement test. 

2. A psychological examination or intelligence test. 

3. An aptitudes test. 

4. A personality test. 

The record of each student should show the results of such 
tests and this information should be transmitted to the college 
which any student proposes to enter. This means that the 
cumulative record of each high school student should show the 
results of numerous tests, formal and informal, together with all 
other information available in the case of any student. 

It has been the custom in some schools for the principals to 
recommend students for admission to college. It seems to me 
that this is putting too great responsibility upon the principal. 
The principal's obligation is to furnish adequate, reliable infor- 
mation, all that is available, and it is the college's responsibility 
to accept or to fail to accept on the basis of information supplied. 
Such study as has been made in "Prognostic Value of High School 
Grades," will be very suggestive and helpful to high schools and 
colleges and the author is to be commended for his painstaking 
study and for a clear statement of the results obtained. 

J. Henry Highsmith, Director 
Division of Instructional Service 
State Department of Public Instruction 
Raleigh, North Carolina 



PROGNOSTIC VALUE OF HIGH SCHOOL GRADES 

Howard J. McGinnis, Registrar 
East Carolina Teachers College 

Colleges have long set up certain standards of admission to pro- 
tect the applicant against the possibility of his wasting his time, 
efforts, and talents on a task for which he has little adaptability, 
as well as to protect the college against the possibility of wasting 
its resources in attempting to instruct those for whom the in- 
struction has little value. 

The standards of admission to college have varied from time to 
time and from college to college. A common standard of ad- 
mission has been based on the success of the applicant in his 
secondary school studies ; admission has been limited often to 
those making a certain average grade in high school studies, or 
to those whose grade average gives them a place above a certain 
minimum ranking in the high school graduating class. 

Colleges justify the setting up of such standards on the grounds 
that those responsible for administering the affairs of the college 
cannot approve the expenditure of college funds, public or private, 
on applicants who give little promise of securing a reasonable 
measure of profit from the instruction offered by the college, and 
from the experience of citizenship in a college community. One 
of the measures of success in college is graduation from the 
curricula chosen, but the final measure is the success of the stu- 
dent in private and in public life after he has completed his 
college work. 

While it is probable that any youth of approximately average 
intelligence or even one considerably below average in intelligence 
might acquire some benefits from a short period of attendance at 
a liberal arts college, he will be done an injustice by being ad- 
mitted to college if his record of course failures discourages his 
seeking further, when he leaves college, a field of activity for 
which he is better suited and in which he might have been highly 
successful. 

If a college wastes twenty-five percent, or even ten percent, of 
its resources in attempting i<> instruct those incapable of profiting 
adequately from its instruction, it must to that extent reduce the 
educational values it has to offer those abundantly able to profll 
by its instruction. 

[3] 



It is not a justifiable excuse for admitting the incapable to say 
the college needs greater numbers of students to pad its reports 
to trustees and to the public. It is comparable to saying one must 
have a new car "to keep up with the Joneses." The American 
public wants educational advantages for its youth and real 
personal development in terms of his native abilities for each of 
its citizens ; it is not satisfied with the mere knowledge that Mary 
Jones attended a certain college for a short time and failed so 
much of its studies that she was forced to withdraw. The people 
who support educational institutions want to know that Mary 
Jones went to college ; that she was a worthy and respected mem- 
ber of the college community; that she carried her studies with 
credit to herself, her parents, her high school and her community, 
and that she secured a definite training that makes her a more 
valuable citizen than she was before she went to college. 

PLAN OF STUDY 

During the summer and early fall of 1939 when applications 
for admission were being received at East Carolina Teachers 
College, it was observed that some of the transcripts of high 
school work received carried very low grades. It was decided to 
follow the record made in college of a group of these students and 
compare their accomplishments with that of a similar number of 
students who had made excellent grades in high school. 

A total of sixty-one students whose high school grades were 
mostly below eighty percent, were selected for the experimental 
group. A similar number of students entering at the same time 
whose high school grades were mostly above ninety percent were 
selected for the control group. The records of the two groups 
were followed four full college years, ending with commencement 
exercises on May 31, 1943. 

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM 

Dogmatic generalizations covering the materials in this report 
might have been made without going to the trouble of gathering 
data — without a definite knowledge of the facts involved. In 
fact, a statement to the effect that high school grades are in- 
significant or entirely untrustworthy as a basis for determining 
what a student is likely to do when he enters college prompted 
the study which is being reported here. In order to verify or 
disprove that statement, it was decided to follow the work of a 
group of students through four years of college. 

[4] 



The primary purposes of the study were : 

(1) To see whether the grades made in high school are indi- 
cative of the grades that are likely to be made in a liberal 
arts or in a professional college. 

(2) To see whether the size and type of high school from which 
a student comes determines the quality of success he is 
likely to have in college. 

(3) To see whether students who make verj r low grades in high 
school or those who make high grades in high school are 
likely to make the better adjustment in college: 

(a) In scholarship. 

(b) In tendency to continue in college. 

(c) In leadership qualities manifested. 

(d) In quality of citizenship shown in college. 

In accomplishing these purposes it was found necessary or 
expedient to compare the college records of these students in : 

(1) Period of college attendance, and graduation. 

(2) Course grades, grade points, failures, and credit hours 
earned. 

(3) Choice of majors. 

(4) Honors earned in college, and 

(5) Student Government penalties. 

PROCEDURES 

Sixty-one freshmen entering East Carolina Teachers College in 
the fall of 1939, whose high school transcripts showed a majority 
of grades in the 70's, were selected for the experimental group. 
Sixty-one freshmen entering at the same time, who had made 
high grades in high school, that is around 90 or better, were 
selected for the control group. These transcripts were selected 
by inspection only. The purpose of making the selection in this 
manner was to see whether by mere observation of their high 
school grades it is possible to forecast with reasonable accuracy, 
probable success in college. These students did not know their 
records were the object of a special study ; hence, they were under 
only the normal stimulation of college students to do good work, 
except that the students in the low group, before this study was 
planned and before they entered college, had been sent letters 
stating that their applications for admission to college had been 
received with transcripts of their high school work; that it was 
observed their high school grades were rather low; and that it 

[5] 



seemed they would need to give very careful attention to their 
college work if they were to have a reasonable degree of success 
in it. 

A special mimeographed record form was prepared for each of 
the 122 students and data were compiled and compared quarter 
by quarter, and year by year. 

TECHNIQUES 

The technique followed is extremely simple — largely a tabu- 
lation and comparison by inspection. It was not deemed profitable 
to use the more involved statistical techniques on such a small 
number of cases, nor do the data lend themselves to such tech- 
niques, except that high school grades could have been correlated 
with college grades, but by inspection as indicated by the record 
of grade points in tables I and II, the correlation is high. 

The tabulation of attendance, credits, grade-points and failures 
in tables I and II is intended to give an over-all picture of each 
group. Totals for individuals and for each year assist in in- 
terpreting and comparing records. 

The six other tables are less involved and consequently more 
easily interpreted. They present factual data in support of the 
several matters under discussion. 

GRADING SYSTEM USED 

This college uses for its grading system the figures 1, 2, 3, 4, 
and 5, in which "1" is the highest grade given, "4" the lowest 
passing grade, and "5" is a failing grade. In weighting these 
grades to calculate scholarship standing, the following grade- 
point values are given for each credit hour carried by the course 
on which the grade is made: 

Grade "1" — 3 grade points a credit hour 

Grade "2"— 2 " " " " 

Grade "3"— 1 " " " " 

Grade "4"— no " " " " 

Grade "5" — 1 " " deducted for the course 

Mathematically, this does not give exactly a grade average of 
"3" or "C", since only one grade point is deducted for a course 
failed. To give a mathematical average of "3" with this plan, it 
would be necessary to deduct one grade point for each credit hour 
failed, hence the scholarship records of students in this study 
who made failures seem to be higher than they actually are in 
comparison with students who made no failures on courses. 

[6] 



Under this plan of grade weighting, a student is considered as 
having a grade average of "3" or "C" when he has as many grade 
points as he has quarter hours of college credit — but if he has 
made failures his actual average will be less than "3" or "C" 
when he has a one-to-one ratio of grade-points and credit hours. 

RECOMMENDATION FOR COLLEGE ADMISSION 

The high school transcript form used by this college has a 
space in which the high school, through its proper officers, may 
recommend or refuse to recommend its graduates for college 
admission. 

All of the students in the high group concerned in this study 
were recommended for college admission, and fifty-one of those in 
the low group were so recommended. On only three of the tran- 
scripts was the recommendation definitely "no". Two of those 
three students dropped out of college at the end of the first year, 
and the third one dropped out at the end of two years of college 
work. Each of them did a poor grade of college work. Four of 
the transcripts carried no recommendation either way. 

On one of the transcripts the principal said the student could 
do college work, but at the end of 12 V2 quarters (a half-quarter 
more than the normal time required for graduation) that student 
had earned only 160 of the 190 quarter hours required for 
graduation and had earned about two-thirds of the number of 
grade points required to give the necessary scholarship average 
for graduation. 

On another transcript the superintendent made the notation 
that the student was "slow". That student graduated in the 
normal time with barely the scholastic average required for 
graduation. The student had failed only one course. 

On another transcript the superintendent said he had "mis- 
givings" about the student's doing college work. That student 
remained in the college three years, made five failures, and had a 
low scholarship average at the time she dropped out of college. 

Still another transcript carried the notation that the student's 
attitude rather than his scholarship might be the factor de- 
termining whether the student would adjust himself satisfac- 
torily in college. That student made no failures in college courses, 
and had barely an average in scholarship grades ; he entered the 
summer session after four full years of college attendance with 
the expectation of graduating, in the extra quarter, at the close 
of the summer session 1943. 

[7] 



HIGH SCHOOLS 

The size and the location of high schools from which these 
students came seem to have had little to do with their scholarship 
in college, and little to do with their adjustment to campus and 
community life. 

Members of the high group came from 45 different high 
schools; members of the low group came from 36 different high 
schools. Since most of the students in each group came from 
rural or village communities (there are few large cities in eastern 
North Carolina from which they might have come), their social 
background must have been reasonably similar; their pre- 
college educational experience could not have been greatly dis- 
similar; and since all except one were residents of North 
Carolina, the total number of months of schooling these students 
received in the elementary and high schools must have been 
practically the same. 

Eighteen of these students, five from the low group and thir- 
teen from the high group, came from the cities of Wilmington, 
Raleigh, Kinston, Greenville, Rocky Mount, Wilson and Washing- 
ton. Of the five from the low group only the student from 
Washington made an outstandingly high scholarship record. 
Each of the thirteen students from the high group had a good 
to excellent scholarship record in college. 

This leaves 48 members of the high group who came from rural 
and, in many instances, small high schools; yet not a single 
member of the high group failed to make an entirely satisfactory 
scholarship record in college. Not one had less than average 
grades in college. The group as a whole earned 1.8 grade points 
for each credit hour passed. This would be a little less than the 
average grade of "B" in the grading system used by some 
colleges — "2" in the grading system used by this college. 

The low group, by comparison, earned only 0.81 of a grade 
point for each credit hour passed. Two students in the low group, 
one from Jacksonville and the other from Willow Springs, were 
graduated with scholarship records that would be called good. 
Only three of the students from this group who dropped out of 
college after a short period of attendance had a scholarship record 
in college that was above average. 

Generally only one or two students came from any one high 
school, but in one instance five and in another six of the low group 
came from the same high school, each of which was classified as 
a city high school. Two members of the high group came from 
the same high school as the six who were in the low group. 

[8] 



In another instance three of the low group and four of the high 
group came from a city high school that is a member of the 
Southern Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools. 

Here is the record of the three from the low group: 

Student No. 17* withdrew during the fall quarter of the fresh- 
man year; he returned the second year and had a scholarship 
ratio of 10 grade points to 34 credit hours earned with three 
failures. 

Student No. 54 stayed in college two years and had a scholar- 
ship ratio of 38 grade points to 85 credit hours earned and 5 
failures. 

Student No. 56 attended college two quarters, earned only 12 
grade points, 16 credit hours, and made three failures. 

The record of the four members of the high group coming from 
the same high school is : 

Student No. 23** stayed in college one year, earned 82 grade 
points and 48 credit hours. 

Student No. 28 attended college three regular years and three 
summer sessions; he graduated with 288 grade points and 190 
credit hours — a superior student. 

Student No. 33 stayed in college only one year and earned 71 
grade points and 41 credit hours. 

Student No. 56 stayed in college one year, earned 110 grade 
points and 45 credit hours. 

Only eight high schools furnished members of both the high 
group and the low group concerned in this study. In four cases 
one member of each group came from the same high school. 

In another instance one of the low group and two of the high 
group came from the same high school. 

In another, two from the low and one from the high group. 

In another instance, three from the low group and four from 
the high group. Their record is given above. 

In another, six from the low group and two from the high 
group. 

In all, 16 from the low group and 13 from the high group came 
from the eight high schools. 

In every case the student with the good grades in high school 
made good to excellent grades in college, and the students with 
poor grades in high school, except four, made poor or below 
average grades in college. Those four graduated with barely 
average grades, and two of them took an extra quarter to meet 
graduation requirements. 

♦See Table II. 
**See Table I. 

[0] 



The scholarship ratio of the 13 members of the high group 
that came from these eight high schools was 3,266 grade points 
earned to 1,888 credit hours earned, which is nearly a "2" or "B" 
average. 

The scholarship ratio for the 16 members of the low group 
that came from the same eight schools was 1,179 grade points 
earned to 1,571 credit hours earned. This is much below a "3" 
average. 

It is seen that 13 members of the high group made nearly 
three times as many grade points and one-fifth more credit hours 
than did the 16 members of the low group who received their 
training in the same high schools and at the same time. 

The facts given above indicate that the length of school term 
in his pre-college education did not determine the student's 
scholarship rank in college. 

SCHOLARSHIP 

The scholarship record of the high, or control, group showing 
the grade points, credit hours, and number of failures made year 
by year, and the totals, is found in Table I. Forty-seven members 
of this group were in college during the fourth year and 41 of 
them were graduated with the Bachelor's degree by the end of 
the fourth year. Two of them, students Nos. 13 and 28, were 
graduated in three years. This was accomplished by their at- 
tending summer sessions. Two more of them are scheduled to 
be graduated at the end of the summer session, 1943. 

It should be explained that in this table, summer session credits 
were carried over and recorded in the space reserved for the 
fourth year's credits. This was done in order to keep intact the 
credits earned respectively in the first, second and third regular 
college years. 

It will be observed that in the four years, these 61 students had 
only 32 individual course failures and that the average grade was 
2.25, which is % of a grade point better than an average of "3" ; 
or 14 of a grade point under a grade of "2" according to the 
grading system of this college ; or a little under an average grade 
of "B", according to the system used by some other colleges. Not 
a single individual in this group made less than average grades 
as a whole during his college attendance. It is striking that so 
large percentage of this group continued in college for the full 
four years. The percentage is considerably higher than that for 
the general enrollment in this college, which is approximately 
50%; that is, approximately 50% of those who enter, continue 
through to graduation. 

[10] 



The highest number of failures made by this group was during 
the third year; the lowest number was during the second year. 
The largest number of withdrawals from this group was at the 
end of the freshman year when nine of them gave up college 
work here; five withdrew at the end of the second year; three 
withdrew at the end of the third year. Three of those who with- 
drew from college returned later to continue their college work. 

Even a casual comparison of Table I and Table II shows very 
definitely that the members of the low group had a much smaller 
total amount of time in college attendance than the high group 
and that its total scholarship as well as its individual scholarship 
was very much lower than that of the high group. 

Under a strict mathematical application of the grading system 
adopted by this college, the lower group earned only 0.58 of a 
grade point for each credit hour attempted; that is, for each 
credit hour included on the student's course schedule at the 
beginning of the quarter. 

If, as is the practice in this college, the student is charged with 
a reduction of only one grade point for each failure, this group 
then could be said to have earned 0.65 of a grade point for each 
credit hour attempted. 

Again, deducting only one grade point for each course failure 
and basing the calculation on the number of credit hours earned, 
this group can be said to have earned 0.81 of a grade point for 
each credit hour actually earned by his securing at least a pass- 
ing grade on the course. 

Thus, it is seen that by each one of these plans of calculation, 
this group made much less than average grades on the college 
work scheduled and on the college work passed as well. 

Only eleven of the group made better than mathematically 
average grades — one had exactly a mathematical average ; and of 
the eleven, only eight were enrolled in the college after the third 
year. Three of the group made praiseworthy scholastic records: 
that is, students nos. 8, 35, and 50. Student No. 35 graduated 
in three years by attending summer sessions and made a grade 
point-credit hour ratio of 396 to 190. 

The question naturally arises, "Why should a student who 
made a very poor scholastic record in high school make such a 
high scholastic record in college?" During the freshman year it 
was observed that this student was making unusually good marks 
and a conference was held with him to get an explanation. He 
stated very simply that he was not interested in attending high 
school and did so only because it was expected of him (from 

[11] 



TABLE I. GRADE POINTS, CREDIT HOURS AND FAILURES 
HIGH GROUP 



STUDENT 


First Year 


Second Year 


Third Year 


Fourth Year 


Total 


NUMBER 


Pts. 


Hrs. 


5's 


Pts. 


Hrs. 


5's 


Pts. 


Hrs. 


5's 


Pts. 


Hrs. 


5's 


Pts. 


Hrs. 


5's 


I** 


107 


48 





138 


54 





119 


54 





60 


34 





424 


190 





2* 


97 


48 





99 


51 





113 


48 





84 


45 





393 


192 





3 


86 


48 





78 


54 





21 


39 


3 


40 


43 


1 


225 


184 


4 


4* 


114 


48 





112 


53 





74 


47 





65 


44 


2 


365 


192 


2 


5 


63 


48 





61 


48 





27 


48 


3 








151 


144 


3 


6* 


63 


48 





88 


47 





77 


49 





51 


51 





279 


195 





7* 


71 


48 





69 


51 





57 


50 





61 


47 





258 


196 





8* 


64 


48 





51 


51 





45 


47 





63 


47 





223 


193 





g 


96 
84 


48 
4S 




o 


87 
86 


42 

49 




o 














183 
206 


90 
112 





10 


36 


15 














11* 


71 


48 





94 


51 





70 


50 





72 


45 





307 


194 





12 


105 


48 





92 


48 

















197 


96 





13*" 


103 


49 


1 


110 


54 





75 


45 





77 


45 





365 


193 


1 


14* 


73 


50 





79 


47 





81 


48 





72 


49 





305 


194 


1 


15* 


103 


48 





90 


45 





99 


47 





99 


51 





391 


191 





16* 


70 


47 





47 


50 





31 


49 


3 


53 


48 


1 


201 


194 


4 


17** 


119 


48 





109 


51 





119 


51 





129 


62 





476 


212 





18* 


74 


48 





50 


50 





55 


50 





72 


45 





251 


193 





19* 


63 


48 





84 


48 





96 


49 





79 


45 





322 


190 





20* 


103 


48 





129 


54 





112 


51 





90 


42 





434 


195 





21* 


110 


48 





142 


51 





113 


46 





87 


45 





452 


190 





22 


104 
82 
79 


51 

48 
48 

























104 

82 

299 


51 
48 
190 





23 























24* 


66 


45 





67 


47 





87 


50 








25* 


98 


48 





116 


51 





99 


48 





83 


47 





396 


194 





26 


48 
105 


22 

48 
























48 
445 


22 
192 





27* 


117 


51 





129 


49 





94 


44 








28* 


114 


42 





72 


52 


1 


63 


47 





39 


49 





288 


190 


1 


29** 


106 


48 





60 


43 





89 


48 





74 


53 





329 


192 





30 


90 


46 





78 


44 

















168 


90 





31 


67 


48 


1 


61 


33 





85 


47 


1 








213 


128 


2 


32* 


85 


48 





90 


47 





89 


48 





60 


47 





324 


190 





33 


71 
104 


41 

48 
























71 
348 


41 
190 





34* 


90 


47 





86 


48 





68 


47 








35** 


88 


48 





82 


48 





58 


49 


1 


86 


48 





314 


193 


1 


36* 


153 


51 





132 


47 





116 


48 





112 


50 





513 


196 





37* 


84 


49 





78 


49 





87 


48 





64 


46 


1 


313 


192 


1 



[12] 



STUDENT 


First Year 


Second Year 


Third Year 


Fourth Year 


Total 


NUMBER 


Pts. 


Hrs. 


5's 


Pts. 


Hrs. 


5's 


Pts. 


Hrs. 


5's 


Pts. 


Hrs. 


5's 


Pts. 


Hrs. 


5's 


38 


38 
94 


29 
48 
























38 
288 


29 
175 





39 


83 


43 





70 


50 





41 


34 








40* 


84 


48 


1 


62 


45 





79 


51 





59 


46 





284 


190 


1 


41* 


116 


48 





116 


54 





117 


50 





76 


47 





425 


199 





42* 


115 


48 





111 


54 





78 


49 





71 


43 





375 


194 





43* 


85 


48 





98 


47 





101 


48 





81 


47 





365 


190 





44 


75 

87 


49 

48 
























75 
304 


49 
190 





45* 


87 


49 





58 


47 


1 


72 


46 





1 


46 


148 
68 


50 

48 






87 
91 


39 
49 


















235 
338 


89 
196 


n 


47** 


89 


48 





90 


51 








48* 


68 


48 





53 


43 





42 


48 


1 


73 


53 





236 


192 


1 


49* 


84 


49 





64 


47 





59 


46 


2 


75 


53 


1 


282 


195 


3 


50* 


85 


48 





85 


52 





62 


48 


1 


72 


47 





304 


195 


1 


51 


81 
101 


47 
47 


1 






















81 
371 


47 
190 


1 


52* 


103 


51 





97 


48 





70 


44 








53* 


71 


48 





46 


48 





53 


48 


1 


52 


47 





222 


191 


1 


54 


135 

91 


49 

48 






161 
101 


52 
50 


















296 
337 


101 
198 





55* 


55 


47 


1 


90 


53 





1 


56 


110 
96 


45 

48 

























110 
353 


45 

199 


n 


57** 


87 


48 





69 


50 





101 


53 








58* 


72 


48 





73 


47 





66 


45 


1 


77 


50 





288 


190 


i 


59 


65 


46 





43 


32 





42 


33 


1 


70 


43 





220 


154 


i 


60* 


117 


50 





101 


50 





83 


50 





66 


42 





367 


192 





61 


69 


46 























6fl 


46 





Totals 


5,472 


2,875 


4 


4,689 


2,606 


1 


3,608 


2,216 


20 


3,257 


2.068 





16,926 


0,666 


32 



* Graduated with Baehclor's'degree.'May 31. 1943. 
** Graduated with Bachelor's degree, March, 1943. 
•** Graduated with Bachelor's degree in three years by attending summer sessions. 



[13] 



TABLE II. GRADE POINTS, CREDIT HOURS AND FAILURES 
LOW GROUP 



STUDENT 


First Year 


Second Year 


Third Year 


Fourth Year 


Total 


NUMBER 


Pts. 


Hrs. 


5's 


Pts. 


Hrs. 


5's 


Pts. 


Hrs. 


5's 


Pts. 


Hrs. 


5's 


Pts. 


Hrs. 


5's 


1 


9 

28 
23 

1 
-1 
46 
48 
55 
-2 
-5 
17 

7 
51 
33 
10 
30 


39 
36 
45 
37 
35 
45 
45 
48 
28 
40 
27 
28 
42 
43 
45 
42 


4 
2 
2 
4 
4 

1 

4 
7 
2 
3 

1 
4 
4 




















9 

129 

138 

1 

14 
57 
170 
259 
_2 
-5 
29 
7 

51 
33 
10 
31 
10 
1 

14 

89 

-4 

-4 

12 

99 

167 

109 

44 

2 

52 

12 

122 

9 

86 
25 
396 
23 
113 


39 

151 

169 

37 

73 

59 

137 

191 

28 

40 

57 

28 

42 

43 

45 

54 

34 

15 

43 

97 

39 

16 

43 

124 

173 

158 

44 

42 

86 

38 

173 

38 

153 

86 

190 

41 

133 


4 


2 
3 
4 


33 
31 


51 
46 



L 


47 
18 


45 

46 


1 

3 


21 
66 


19 
32 


1 

2 


4 

8 
4 


5 


15 
11 
81 
85 


38 
14 
48 
51 


5 


















q 


6 

















7 


41 
75 


44 
47 


2 









3 


8* 
9 


44 


45 






4 


10 




















7 


11 


5 


12 


1 


7 


18 


2 








5 


12 








3 


13 




















n 


14 




















i 


15 




















4 


16 


1 
10 


12 
34 


2 
3 














fi 


17 














3 


18 


1 

14 
37 
-4 
-4 
12 
22 
33 
13 
44 

2 

4 
12 
44 

9 
19 

9 
121 
23 
26 


15 

43 
47 
39 
16 
43 
45 
44 
31 
44 
42 
39 
38 
49 
38 
38 
40 
54 
41 
41 


2 
4 
1 
8 
4 
2 

1 
2 

4 
3 
2 

4 
2 
4 

5 
2 














J| 


19 




















4 


20 


36 


34 


1 


16 


16 











2 


21 








8 


22 




















4 


23 




















2 


24 


32 
18 
23 


31 
33 
35 



3 
3 


45 
33 
19 


48 
42 
39 


1 

3 
4 








1 


25 
26 
27 


83 
54 


54 
53 


1 
1 


8 
10 



28 




















4 


29 


48 


47 


3 














fi 


30 














?, 


31 
32 


38 


48 





6 


45 


4 


34 


31 





4 
4 


33 
34 


20 

16 

110 


34 
46 
49 


2 
5 



20 


42 


2 


27 


39 


2 


8 
9 


35t 

36 


60 


32 





105 


55 






5 


37 


29 


43 


2 


58 


49 











4 



[14] 



STUDENT 


First Year 


Second Year 


Third Year 


Fourth Year 


Total 


NUMBER 


Pts. 


Hrs. 


5's 


Pts. 


Hrs. 


5's 


Pts. 


Hrs. 


5's 
2 


Pts. 


Hrs. 


5's 


Pts. 


Hrs. 


5's 


38 


10 


29 


4 


17 


29 


2 


17 


33 


27 


46 


1 


71 


137 


9 


39 


8 


15 


1 




















8 


15 
87 


1 
6 


40 


20 


45 


3 


7 


42 


3 














27 


41 


52 


47 





48 


44 


1 


30 


41 


1 


59 


46 


3 


189 


178 


5 


42* 


19 


45 


1 


36 


48 





40 


47 


1 


60 


43 





155 


183 


2 


43 


11 


46 


4 




















U 


46 
194 


4 

1 


44* 


19 


48 


1 


40 


42 





63 


48 





80 


56 





202 


45 


15 


43 


2 




















15 


43 


" 


46 


40 


48 





43 


50 





44 


49 





43 


41 





170 


188 





47 


20 

48 


45 

48 


1 



43 
45 


47 
46 






36 
49 


43 

48 


4 
1 








99 
203 


135 
200 


5 


48* 


61 


58 


1 


2 


49 


8 
59 


16 
48 
























8 
262 


16 
194 






50* 


77 


47 





63 


46 





53 


53 





51 


3 
22 

1 
27 
41 


16 
45 
31 
45 

48 


2 
5 
2 
3 





















3 

22 

1 

38 

102 


16 
45 
31 
85 
170 


2 


52 




















5 
2 


53 




















54 


11 

23 


40 
35 


2 
3 














5 


55 


16 


39 


6 


22 


48 


4 


13 


56 


12 
40 


16 

48 


3 





















12 
189 


16 
192 


3 


57* 


32 


43 


1 


44 


49 


1 


73 


52 





2 


58 


13 
52 
42 


16 

48 
48 


1 






















13 
52 

202 


16 
48 
190 


1 


59 























60* 


54 


49 





51 


49 





55 


44 








61 


33 


48 





M 


45 





58 


48 


ii 


43 


ie 





190 


187 





Totals 


1,402 


2,344 


125 


1,174 


1,313 


43 


956 


1,053 


38 


1,010 


861 


Id 


4,542 


5,571 





* Graduated with Bachelor's degree, May 31, 1943. 
** Graduated with Bachelor's degree, March, 1943. 
t Graduated with Bachelor's degree in three years by attending summer sessions. 



SUMMARY OF SCHOLARSHIP AND CREDITS EARNED 



BTl HINT 


First J 


Second V. ■ ir 


Third 


Poortl 




CROUP 


Pts. 


Hrs. 


5's 


PU. 




5's 




il. 


5's 






5's 








ffigb 




2,875 


1 


4,589 


2,506 


1 


3,608 




80 




2,068 










Low 


1,402 


2,344 


125 


1,171 


1,818 


43 


QM 




38 


1,010 













[15] 



which we may gather that there was at least minor compulsion) , 
but that in college he had a very definite goal in mind, something 
very definite to work for, and that, as a consequence, he was 
giving his very best efforts to his college work. This student was 
somewhat above the usual age for college admission. In fact, 
two or three years had elapsed after he graduated from high 
school before he entered college. 

With most of the students in the low group, it seems evident 
they were working as nearly up to their capacity as most students 
do, for there was little improvement in their scholarship ratio; 
for example, student No. 33 had a scholarship ratio the first year 
of 19 to 38; in the fourth year, he had a scholarship ratio of 27 
to 39; his total scholarship ratio for the four years was 86 to 
153, with a total of eight failures. Again student No. 38 had a 
scholarship ratio the first year of 10 to 39, the fourth year of 
27 to 46, and a total scholarship ratio of 71 to 137 for the four 
years, with nine failures. Student No. 61 had a scholarship ratio 
the first year of 33 to 48. This was raised a bit during the 
sophomore and junior years, but it dropped back during the 
senior year to 43-46 ; it was only a small fraction above average, 
that is 190 to 187 at the end of the four years. This student is . 
attempting to complete the requirements for graduation by at- 
tending a summer session at the end of the four years. 

TOTAL COLLEGE ATTENDANCE 

A casual inspection and a comparison of Tables I and II indi- 
cate at a glance that the high group persisted in college 
attendance to a greater extent than did the low group. That fact 
is emphasized more definitely in the figures given below. Since 
this college operates on the quarter plan, and since there were 61 
students in each group, if all members of each group had attended 
the full time, each group would have had a total attendance 
record of 183 student quarters a year. During the freshman 
year the high group had a total of 180, or three student quarters 
under the maximum possible in college attendance. The low 
group, on the other hand, had only 161 student quarters in 
attendance, or 22 student quarters under the maximum possible. 
There was a more drastic reduction in the number of student 
quarters of attendance during the second year for each group, 
but the greater reduction was in the low group. 

[16] 



TABLE 





Possible 


Actual 




Student 
Quarters 


High Group 


Low Group 




Student 
Quarters 


Percent 


Student 
Quarters 


Percent 


1st year 


183 


180 


98.4 


161 


88 


2nd year 


183 


154 


84.2 


91 


49.2 


3rd year 


183 


138 


75.4 


71 


38.8 


4th year 


183 


131 


71 


58 


31.7 


Total 


732 


603 


82.4 


381 


52.05 



NOTE: 61 (Students) x 3 (Quarters) = 183 possible student quarters of attendance a year x 4 (Years) 
student quarters of attendance in four years. 



732 possible 



During the senior or fourth year, the high group made a total 
of 131 student quarters in attendance, or 52 student quarters 
short of the maximum possible. On the other hand, during that 
year, the low group made only a total of 58 student quarters in 
attendance, which was 125 student quarters short of the maxi- 
mum possible. 

For the full four years, the high group had a total of 603 
student quarters in attendance, which was 82.4% of the 732 
maximum student quarters of attendance possible. The low 
group, on the other hand, had only 381 student quarters in at- 
tendance for the four years, which was 52.05% of the total 
attendance possible. Table III breaks down student quarters of 
attendance by years for each group. 



GRADUATION 

Two members of the high group were graduated in June 1942, 
which was only three calendar years from the time of their ad- 
mission to college, but by taking summer sessions, they made up 
the extra three quarters and were graduated in the usual twelve 
quarters. Six shortened their graduation by one quarter and 
graduated in March 1943 by attending a full summer quarter. 
Thirty-three were graduated in June 1943 after having attended 
twelve regular quarters. Two more were graduated in August 
1943, one because of some irregularity in her schedule that 
necessitated her taking an extra quarter, and the other because 
of her desire to take particular elective courses to add to her 
equipment as a college graduate. Thus 41 (67.2%) of the high 
group were graduated by the end of the four normal college years 

[17] 



required for graduation, and two more, making a total of 43 of 
the 61 in this group, were graduated by August 1943. It is quite 
certain that one other student who dropped out of college for a 
year will return to graduate next year, and is it probable that 
another who dropped out during the college year 1942-43 will 
return to complete the requirements for graduation. If they do, 
that will make a total of 45 (73.7%) of this group to graduate. 

In the low group, one was graduated in March 1942, having 
taken eleven quarters to complete the requirements for gradua- 
tion, and seven were graduated in June 1943, but five of the seven 
had found it necessary to attend one or more summer sessions to 
do so. Thus eight (13.1%) were graduated within four calendar 
years, but only 3 (5%) met the requirements for graduation 
within the normal twelve quarters. Four more were graduated in 
August 1943 after taking 121/0 to 14 quarters to do so. A total 
of twelve (19.6%) of the 61 members of the low group were 
graduated by August 1943. There is little probability that any 
other members of this group can or will meet the graduation 
requirements. 

As to the time required to graduate, in the high group one took 
111/^2 quarters; 37 took 12 quarters; one took 12i/ 2 quarters; and 
two stayed in college 13 quarters. In the low group, one grad- 
uated in 11 quarters; 2 in 12 quarters; 6 took 121/2 quarters; 
2 in 13 quarters and 1 in 14 quarters. One other member of the 
low group has already been in college 13 V2 quarters and another, 
14 quarters. There seems little prospect that these last two 
students will meet graduation requirements. 

WITHDRAWALS FROM COLLEGE 

The difference in the number of withdrawals from college by 
members of the two groups was apparent from the time of their 
admission in the fall quarter 1939. Many more members of the 
low group withdrew from college than was the case with the 
membership in the high group. This can be readily seen by an in- 
spection and comparison of Tables I and II. In the fourth year 
only 17 members of the low group still remained in college, while 
43 members of the high group were still in college. 

An inquiry was addressed during the spring of 1943 to all 
students under consideration in this study who had dropped out 
of college, asking their reasons for dropping out of college. 

Replies were received from 38 ; 22 did not reply. The reasons 
given are indicated below under the number given the student 
in this study. Seven replied that they entered business school, 

[18] 



leaving the impression, or attempting to leave the impression, 
that this was the reason for dropping out of college. Six of these 
were in the low group. Whether they entered business school 
immediately after withdrawing from this college is not apparent. 

Of those who did not reply from the low group, at least one 
failed to pass the required number of credit hours to return and 
each of the others was making a very low scholastic record. 

Of the members of the high group who withdrew from this 
college, at least six entered othei academic and professional 
colleges. Two entered business schools; two secured secretarial 
jobs later, and four reported that they had married. 

Seven of the low group and four of the high group left college 
to get married or did so before the end of the period covered by 
this study. It is probable that there was some evasion and that 
the real reason for the withdrawal was not, in all cases, correctly 
given. 

The reasons most frequently given were : 

TABLE IV 

Did not have enough money 9 

Did not like college work 1 

Had a poor foundation in high school 1 

Did not like this college 1 

Personal illness 2 

Got married 6 

Entered another college __,. 3 

Entered business school 7 

Voice handicap 1 

Discouraged by failures 1 

Got a secretarial job 3 

Entered armed forces 3 

WHY STUDENTS LEAVE COLLEGE 

TABLE V 

Student 

No. LOW GROUP 

4 Got married 

6 Sick 

7 Voice handicap not suitable to teaching; going to business college 

13 Not enough money 

14 Entered business school 

15 Got married; did not like college; poor high school foundation 

17 Entered a small college 

18 Not agreeable roommate assignment; got married 

19 Entered business school; not enough money; got married 

20 Entered military service 
23 Got married 

[19] 



24 Sickness, personal; not employed; planning to get work 

27 Got a secretarial job; got married; still working 

28 Not enough money; poor high school foundation; working in 

dentist's office 

30 Entered commercial school; secured secretarial employment 

32 Not enough money; poor high school foundation; went to business 

school; has secretarial job 
3 6 Entered business school; has secretarial job 

37 Entered military service 

38 Sickness; appendicitis 

40 Not enough money; poor high school foundation; working defense 

job 

41 Not enough money; in training for nursing 

46 Withdrew temporarily and returned to E. C. T. C. 

47 Disgruntled at a teacher who had given a failure 

53 Discouraged at failures; got married 

54 Entered military service 

58 Got a job 

59 Not enough money; in training for nursing 

HIGH GROUP 

5 Got married 

9 Not enough money; entered Air Corps 

10 Got married to man in military service 

12 Entered business school; has secretarial job 

22 Not enough money 

31 Got married; now unemployed 

33 Entered engineering school 
38 Entered engineering school 
46 Got married 

54 Entered medical school; now medical technologist 

5 6 Entered military service 

61 Secured secretarial job 

STUDENT MAJORS 

A check was made of the major fields of study elected by the 
122 students concerned in this study to see whether there was a 
tendency for a student to be influenced in the selection of his 
major by his own estimation of his personal characteristics and 
abilities with special reference to the quality of his scholarship in 
high school. The tabulation below gives the major fields chosen 
by these students. 

There was a tendency for students of the low group to elect 
majors in which a considerable amount of manual skill is em- 
ployed, and a tendency for the members of the high group con- 
versely to choose a major field in which a high degree of academic 
scholarship is needed. 

It is noticeable that nearly twice as many of the low group 
chose the primary curriculum as there were members of the high 

[20] 



group electing this field of preparation, and nearly twice as many 
members of the high group chose the grammar grade as did 
members of the low group. More than three times as many of 
the high group chose mathematics as did those in the low group ; 
more than four times as many chose English. This seems to 
indicate that the members of each group had some knowledge of 
their own capabilities and that they chose their majors accord- 
ingly. Except in the fields of primary and grammar grade edu- 
cation, students in this college usually elect two majors, hence 
in the tabulation below these double majors are included. 

TABLE VI. CHOICE OF MAJORS 

High Low 

Commerce 13 19 

Physical Education 2 6 

Home Economics 11 14 

Primary 7 13 

Grammar 11 6 

English 13 3 

Mathematics 10 3 

History 8 4 

Science 12 11 

SUMMER SCHOOL ATTENDANCE 

Members of both the low and the high groups attended summer 
school in several instances ; however, members of the high group 
seem to have a better reason for summer school attendance than 
the low group. Several members of the high group attended 
summer sessions in order to hasten graduation; two of them 
hastening it by a full year; some hastened graduation by two 
quarters, and others hastened it by one quarter. 

One member of the high group attended summer school merely 
to get certain courses in which she was interested and to secure 
the additional training. Another of the high group attended an 
extra quarter for this purpose. 

It seems manifest that most of those in the low group who 
attended summer sessions did so in the hope that they might 
improve their grade standing and thus justify their attendance in 
college. A further purpose in their attending the summer session 
was to accumulate the credit hours needed to keep up with their 
classmates since by failures and by being required to take lighter 
schedules, they were falling behind in the total number of credit 
hours required to qualify for the advanced classification. 

[21] 



One member of the low group was graduated in three years and 
three summer sessions. This was student No. 35, an unusual 
case, which has been mentioned previously in this report. 

CLASS HONORS AND CLUB MEMBERSHIPS 

Members of the high group secured many more honors by way 
of class offices and positions of responsibility than did members 
of the low group. The high group likewise had a larger repre- 
sentation in club memberships as shown in Table VII. Only one 
member of the low group held any official position in a class or 
group ; that was the position as club secretary-treasurer. Thirty- 
nine members of the high group held such offices ; one as class 
president, another as class vice-president, 12 as club presidents, 
and 12 as club vice-presidents. Nearly three times as many of 
the high group as of the low group were members of the Young 
Women's Christian Association. Twelve members of the high 
group were chosen for the honor of Who's Who in Colleges, but 
no member of the low group was given this honor. 

TABLE VII. CLASS HONORS AND CLUB MEMBERSHIPS 

High Low 

Class president 1 — 

Class vice-president 1 

Class secretary 1 

Club president 12 

Club vice-president 13 

Club secretary-treasurer 11 1 

Dormitory proctor 3 1 

Y. W. C. A. members 30 11 

"Y" Cabinet 3 

Student Government Association 11 

Publications Board 1 

Marshal 5 

Senior Superlative 4 

Who's Who in College 12 

Tecoan Staff 4 1 

Reporter, College Paper 4 

Editor, College Paper 1 

Club memberships 111 39 



Totals 225 53 

STUDENT GOVERNMENT PENALTIES 

One measure of a student's citizenship in the college com- 
munity is the record of his appearance before the Student 
Government Council, when called before that body on some 

[22] 



charge of misconduct or infraction of regulations, and of the 
penalties inflicted on him. This is a negative significant measure. 
The most common infraction, for which penalties are imposed, 
is returning to the campus and signing in after the time set for 
the return. Slight tardiness or tardiness with good excuse is a 
minor infraction. 

The comparative record of the two groups of students under 
consideration with respect to penalties imposed is found in Table 
VIII where, it will be observed, 19 individuals of the high group 
received during the four years a total of 26 penalties ; 17 of these 
were minor infractions entailing a restriction of privileges for a 
period of one week or less. In only seven instances did members 
of this group receive a penalty restriction of as much as three 
weeks. In the low group during the four years, 20 individuals 
received a total of 50 penalty restrictions, of which 22 were for 
periods of one week or less. Eight of the 50 were rather severe 
penalties, ranging from a one-month restriction of privileges to 
suspension. 

The comparison is more striking when it is explained that the 
larger number of withdrawals from college were from the low 
group and that this group had only approximately five-eighths as 
much total attendance time in college as the high group. There 
seems to have been a definite tendency for students of low scholar- 
ship to offend more frequently against college regulations and 
against principles of good college citizenship. 

Practically all penalties are imposed by the Student Council 
which is the governing body elected by the students themselves. 

TABLE VIII. STUDENT GOVERNMENT PENALTIES 

ruction: High Gbouf LowGrotjj 

(19 individuals » (20 individuals) 

Warning 1 1 

Less than one week 1 2 

One week 16 20 

LOdaya 1 6 

2 weeks — 4 

:: weeks 7 9 

One month — 1 

One quarter 1 

Indefinite — 1 

Probation — 1 

Suspended — 1 

Totals 26 50 

[23] 



SUMMARY 

The difference in the accomplishment of the members of the 
two groups was apparent from the first quarter of their college 
attendance. 

For example, the low group failed 125 different courses during 
the first year while the high group failed only four. The low 
group failed 222 courses during the four years while the high 
group failed only 32. 

It seems highly significant also that the high group had a 
scholastic ratio of 5,472 grade points earned to 2,875 credit hours 
earned in the freshman year, while the low group had a scholar- 
ship ratio of 1,402 grade points earned and 2,344 credit hours 
earned in that year. 

Comparable accomplishment for the second year was 4,589 
grade points to 2,506 credit hours earned by the high group and 
1,174 grade points earned to 1,313 credit hours for the low group. 

While there was some improvement by the low group, as might 
be expected, only a small number of the low group made better 
than average grades. 

Of the 17 members of the low group enrolled in college during 
the fourth year only seven had average scholarship grades or 
better. Five of the seven had barely average grades. One of 
this group graduated in three years. 

Of the 43 members of the high group in college during the 
fourth year, all had better than average grades ; one had slightly 
above average grades ; all others had good to excellent grades. 

The high group excelled in honors attained and had a better 
citizenship record. 

There was a tendency for members of the high group to select 
the traditional academic majors such as English, history, mathe- 
matics ; and members of the low group to select majors that are 
thought to call more strongly on manual skills; there was a 
tendency, among those electing elementary school teaching, for 
good students to elect the grammar curriculum and poor students 
to select the primary curriculum. 

CONCLUSIONS 

1. The results of this study indicate that the grades given in 
North Carolina high schools are comparable to the grades 
given at East Carolina Teachers College to students of similar 
ability and similar accomplishment. 

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2. High school grades are highly significant of the type of ac- 
complishment the student is likely to achieve if he attends a 
liberal arts or professional college. 

3. Students who have a high grade average in high school are 
quite certain to carry college work successfully and according 
to the results of this study, they are six times as likely to 
graduate from college as those with a very low grade average 
in high school. 

4. There are only two chances in 62 or one chance in 31 that the 
student with very low grades in high school will make out- 
standing grades in college; about an even chance, that is, 27 
in 62, that he will stay in college only one year; about one 
chance in nine that he will graduate in the normal time ; about 
one chance in seven that he will graduate at all. 

5. Students who enter an academic or professional college after 
having made a very low grade average in high school are 
likely to: 

(a) Drop out of college before graduation 

(b) Make less than average grades to very poor grades 

(c) Secure few student honors or positions of responsibility 
in student organizations 

(d) Make a relatively poor adjustment to college life and to 
college regulations 

(e) Waste time in attempting tasks that are beyond their 
capabilities or for which they are ill-suited. 

6. Recommendations for admission to college are often given 
inadvisedly by high school principals and superintendents to 
students who have small chance of doing successful college 
work. 

7. A college assumes a heavy burden in admitting and attempt- 
ing to instruct students who are not adapted to the curricula 
and the type of learning it has to offer. 

RECOMMENDATIONS 

1. High schools should give more careful vocational counselling 
to members of their graduating classes who contemplate at- 
tending college. These students should be made aware of 
their native abilities, their personal limitations, and their best 
probable choice of vocation. 

2. High school seniors should not be recommended for admission 
to a type of training (or college) in which they have small 
chance of achieving at least fair success. 

[25] 



3. Colleges should set up procedures, such as intelligence, 
achievement, vocational, personality, and academic tests, 
coupled with personal conferences to determine eligibility for 
admission to the curriculum and the type of training each has 
to offer. 

4. No prospective student should be admitted until the college 
has assured itself that the applicant is capable, from every 
standpoint, of taking the training it has to offer and of getting 
value received for the time, money, and effort given while 
attending the college, and that he has a reasonable prospect 
of completing the course of study contemplated. 

5. When a student is admitted to a college he should be given 
such encouragement, stimulation and direction as to encourage 
his best accomplishment in the course of training undertaken ; 
he should not be looked upon as just another measure of grist 
in the mill. 



[26 



FOR REFERENCE 

Oo Not Take From This Room